Andrei Mironovich used to promote “Baltic gold”, a nickname given to amber attributable to its color and the truth that many of the world’s deposits of the fossilised resin are to be discovered alongside the northern European beach. However now he finds it extra worthwhile to mine for “digital gold”, or bitcoin.
I met Mironovich on a latest journey to Kaliningrad. (Tucked between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic coast, the obscure Russian exclave gained wider recognition this month as a World Cup venue.) My preliminary communications with him weren’t by way of the encrypted messaging apps I typically use with crypto varieties; reasonably, we had been launched within the headquarters of the Kaliningrad Area Growth Company, a state-owned entity whose goal is to carry enterprise into the area.
On the KRDC I used to be instructed how a few entrepreneurs from Moscow had not too long ago been proven round two websites within the metropolis, the place they had been trying to arrange their very own cryptocurrency mines — massive information centres the place specialised computer systems course of transactions, consuming huge quantities of power, in return for bitcoins. The entrepreneurs determined to take not only one however each websites, with an funding of $50m within the mines — a not inconsiderable sum for a area whose GDP is lower than $7bn.
I ask Sergei Evstigneev, the area’s IT and communications minister, whether or not he’s involved that cryptocurrencies haven’t been regulated on the state degree but. “No matter isn’t unlawful is authorized,” he tells me. “There aren’t any legal guidelines concerning cryptocurrency mining as a result of it’s a brand new type of enterprise.”
Russia’s strategy to cryptocurrencies is unclear — it had mentioned it might ban them however its tone appeared to melt after Vladimir Putin met Vitalik Buterin, the creator of Ethereum, one in all bitcoin’s rivals. What is evident is that Kaliningrad could be very a lot open for enterprise — and it doesn’t appear to thoughts what type it is available in.
Surrounded by each the EU and Nato, however a member of neither, the area finds itself reduce off from its neighbours, with any items that it desires to export — the vast majority of which go to Russia — having to journey by way of two completely different international locations with a view to attain the mainland, 300 miles to the east. Since 1996 although, Kaliningrad has been designated a particular financial zone, that means it could entice buyers with advantages, together with some duty-free imports, decreased social safety premiums and varied tax breaks. The federal authorities determined that as of the beginning of this 12 months tech corporations ought to be given additional tax breaks in Kaliningrad — exporting digital items throughout three borders is rather a lot simpler than exporting bodily ones.
On account of this new regime, entrepreneurs such because the pair from Moscow won’t must pay revenue or property taxes for the primary six years — and that’s not all. KRDC’s director-general Vladimir Zarudny says: “Kaliningrad has develop into a type of lab the place we are able to check new initiatives and laws. We predict we may very well be a liberal Russian territory which is pleasant for doing enterprise, and a gateway to Russian markets.” Furthermore, he says, the area’s lovely seashores and historic connections with Europe ought to make it a beautiful place for overseas buyers.
Later, I’m pushed by Mironovich in his BMW 5 Collection to an previous Soviet manufacturing unit within the north of the town, which homes 60 bitcoin and Ethereum mining machines. The constructing is in a state of appreciable disrepair and hadn’t been utilized in greater than 15 years, so solely prices Mironovich and his business-partner cousin Rbs15,000 — about £180 — to lease every month.
The pair handle to make two bitcoins a month, value about £10,000 at present charges. However with costs plunging, I ponder how lengthy they’ll be capable of hold the enterprise operating. Mironovich, clad in western designer gear, doesn’t appear too frightened. A serial entrepreneur, he dietary supplements his crypto revenue with different income streams. And he has not too long ago began doing enterprise in yet one more commodity: waste disposal.
Something goes in Kaliningrad — so long as you’re getting cash.
Jemima Kelly is an FT Alphaville reporter